Almost all the affects of the change in naming from XBMC to Kodi have been realized at this point except for a few small areas. One of those areas is using the on-box API to send commands into Kodi or automate certain actions.
In my case I was trying to automatically play a file as soon as my Kodi player boots. To do that you simply place a file with the right content in the right place.
My System Details:
Hardware: Raspberry Pi 2 /w Edimax EW-7811UTC AC600 Wifi Adapter
Software: OpenELEC v6.0.3 (Kodi 15.2 Isengard)
Specifically, create a file called autoexec.py in the /storage/.kodi/userdata/ directory.
If you’re trying to test the script on the CLI via ssh by using the python interpreter you might notice that calls to import the xbmc module fail.
OpenELEC:~ # python
Python 2.7.3 (default, Feb 29 2016, 21:17:05)
[GCC 4.9.3] on linux2
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>> import xbmc
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
ImportError: No module named xbmc
This is expected because the xbmc module is not exposed to the default python path.
Testing your Script:
In order to test your script try having Kodi send it through it’s python namespace using the kodi-send command:
OpenELEC:~ #kodi-send -a "RunScript(/storage/.kodi/userdata/autoexec.py)"
Quick and easy automation in Kodi. To see other functions that can be called either via kodi-send or automated in xbmc.executebuiltin statements, check Kodi’s official docs on the subject.
While working on the Topology_Converter for work I came upon several lessons with Udev. The topology_converter project essentially takes input (from a graphiviz file) and builds a network topology with proper interface names. In order to make the interface names work there is a script which spits out udev rules.
Writing Udev Rules
With Udev you can rename interfaces using a number of parameters which are defined in rules. Rules should be stuck in the “/etc/udev/rules.d/70-persistent-net.rules” file to follow convention but you could technically stick them anywher in the rules.d directory.
To see all of the possible criteria that can be matched upon for a given network interface, use the command below replacing “eth0” with your interface of choice.
udevadm info -a -p /sys/class/net/eth0
Udevadm info starts with the device specified by the devpath and then
walks up the chain of parent devices. It prints for every device
found, all possible attributes in the udev rules key format.
A rule to match, can be composed by the attributes of the device
and the attributes from one single parent device.
looking at device '/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:19.0/net/eth0':
looking at parent device '/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:19.0':
looking at parent device '/devices/pci0000:00':
You can see there are quite a few options to match on. When remapping physical interfaces on Linux, I strongly recommend adding the match for PCI to make sure this interface is mapped to the PCI bus in some way. The concern when not using the PCI match (as shown below) is that if these physical interfaces are to take part in bridges or bonds with vlans or sub interfaces…. in that case your bridge or bond may inherit mac addresses from a physical interface and there will be a collision in the renaming process which means your interfaces may be left named “renameXX” or something like that.
Here are some sample Udev rules for a given series of interface renaming operations.
It is not well known that the Nautilus file manager in Gnome can be used as a client to access box shares. This article seeks to document how to set up that connectivity mostly as a reminder for when I need to do it later.
proceedure1). Open Nautilus and select “Connect to Server”
2). Fill in the “Server Address” as follows:
note: The ‘%40’ is the character encoding for ‘@’ and you must leave that there exactly as shown.
3). Click Connect and, when prompted, enter your external password for Enterprise Box. This should bring up a File Browser window showing you the files you have in your Box space.
If your password doesn’t work… you may need to create an “External Password” for use with apps (like Nautlius) that do not have access to your single sign-on (SSO) system.
1). Log into your Box account from the website.
2). At the upper right, click your name. From the drop-down menu, click Account Settings.
3). Near the bottom, under “Create External Password”, click Edit password. and save it when finished.
After months of searching on Craigslist I was not able to find a 7+ foot workbench that was made of solid wood. I was getting increasingly frustrated so I began looking online for different plans to make my own.
7 to 8 ft long ~2ft deep
THICK wooden top (I wanted more for aesthetics than anything else)
Heavy Duty Construction ( I didn’t want to think twice about putting 500 pounds on it )
After a while of searching I found an excellent starting point in an old Family Handyman article. I referenced this article for all the steps on the construction of the base and tabletop with several modifications:
I wanted a 2×6 base mainly for looks but also because I intend to keep this workbench for my lifetime and want it to last at least that long.
I also added some shelving to the crossbars underneath because it should have been there from the start and I had some leftover lumber from my earlier garage shelving project.
I added a 45 degree chamfer on the table top since this is just pine and could otherwise be pretty easily marred on the corners.
Lastly I inset a T-square in the corner of the table because I had an extra one lying around and I thought it could be useful.
$61 — Lumber
$50 — Used Vise off of Craigslist (looked new to me)
$20 — Lag Bolts and Hardware
$5 — Consumables (Wood Glue)
FREE — 3″ Deck Screws — I had these leftover
FREE — L Square — I had an extra
$50 — New Table Saw Blade
$56 — (3) 36″ Clamps
~$250 total mostly in new tools that I would have bought for something else. All in all I could not be happier with the result, it was just what I wanted and meets every one of my needs.
Bringing the lumber home
This little car has never carried so much lumber in its entire life. So many 2x4s but I made it all in one trip!
Constructing the workbench
The 2×6 base is complete here.
The sawdust is starting to pile-up after ripping the one side of all the 2×4’s
Starting the glue-up
Glue up is almost done looking at the underside of the table top.
This is the actual work-side of the table.
Really starting to look like a tabletop now.
At this point I was about to take a belt sander to it.
Had some solid red oak lumber left over from the Babyroom Built-in Project and decided to make a picture frame for my wife for Christmas. This was my first attempt at this sort of thing but it came out excellent!
What I learned here is that a 16×20 frame has the internal dimensions (aka “id”) of 16×20. Or in other words if you’re building a 16×20 frame, your piece of glass is going to need to be 16×20.
Also if you want to include a border of matting you can matte down a size. The idea being that you could frame an 11×14 photo in a 16×20 frame and the difference between the two sizes can be found as a pre-cut piece of matting.
Step 2). Purchase Matting and Glass
I have been using a store called Jerry’s Artarama for years and they are excellent. They’re more of an art supply store but they have everything one could ever need in the area of framing. They also have some really knowledgeable staff that can give you guidance on how to complete any framing project. If you don’t have a local store near you, you can buy online directly from Jerry’s. These were the items I used for this project:
Lastly there’s always Amazon. Amazon sells all kinds of pre-cut matting that you can have delivered to your door. The only downside for ordering online with something like this is you can’t get a great look at the precise color until it arrives. I like to pick my stain and my matting at the same time for the best results.
Step 3). Cut Lumber To Frame Width
In my case I started with some larger width boards. So I set up the table saw and made them a bit more narrow, in my cases the frame width was about 2.25 inches.
Step 4). Route the Inside Edge of the frame with a Rabbit Bit
After cutting my lumber to the proper width, I got out my router table and went to the store to get a rabbet bit.
In my case I purchased a rabbet bit that would carve out a 1/2″ x 1/2″ channel. I ran this along one of the sides of all my lumber that was previously cut to width.
Step 5). Cut the 45 Degree Corners
At this point it is a matter of cutting your frame pieces so that you can fit your glass and matte. As I was cutting I took my matte board out several times just to make sure everything would fit without much play.
Step 6). Wood Glue and Clamp
Most folks secure frame corners together with several joining techniques however I was using red oak for this project which is a very porous species of wood and I didn’t think it would be necessary to add the extra strength.
To confirm the theory, I cut a few extra corners and glued them together with Elmer’s Wood Glue to test the strength of the glue alone. After the glue hardened over night, I examined the test corner by hand at first but when I was unable to break it by hand I put it in the vice and only then was I able to break it.
Glue alone is more than enough for a picture frame made of oak.
As the corners are drying I strongly recommend adding a ton of long clamps to all sides to further firm everything up. I even added some C-clamps to the individual corner pieces to make sure they would stay flush with one another. I had 7 clamps set up as mine was drying, 4 c-clamps, one for each corner, and 3 big long clamps to span the sides.
Step 7). Sand Sand Sand
After the glue was set over night I started the sanding process. Before I started, I made sure to empty the sander of anything that might have been in the collection bag beforehand for reasons I will explain in the next step.
At this point I began sanding all sides with 60, and 120 grit to hone out any large imperfections with the glue-up.
Step 8). Fill in Any Gaps
Since I was using glue alone and I am not perfect there were some very small gaps in my corners. Since appearance is everything with a picture frame I wanted to make sure to take care of these.
Using the sanding dust in the orbital sander dust collection bag I mixed-up a paste of wood glue and oak sawdust. I then used my finger and a toothpick to apply this slurry wherever there were any imperfections in the corner glue up.
This technique also allows the corners to take some of the stain in, where as glue by itself would not absorb any stain.
Step 9). Sand Again
After letting the second glue-up set it was time to sand again. This time I went right to the 220 grit sand paper and smoothed the entire piece out.
Step 10). Stain And Poly
I chose to use a nice red oak stain and some aerosol polyurethane but you can finish your frame however you like. I was tempted to just use some dutch oil and see how that looked but despite having purchased a bit of dutch oil I never seem to want to use it when I have the choice of stain.
Two coats of stain were applied several hours apart.
Then an additional 24 hours of drying time for the stain at which point the first coat of poly was applied. I hung the piece from the ceiling of my workshop while applying the poly so I could get a nice even coating and do all sides at once. I waited another 5 hours or so before applying the second coat of poly, then let the piece air dry for a couple days and voila, the frame was complete.
Step 11). Mount Picture
I still haven’t done this for my new frame but I’ve performed these last two steps for other frames. Basically it boils down to these little items called glazier points, you insert the glass, followed by the matte board, then your picture, I tend to use a bit of masking tape on the edges of the picture to keep it from sliding around in the matting.
Step 12). Apply the Backing
After taping the picture you insert the backer board (usually cardboard for larger frames) and start to move around the edge of the frame adding glazier points on each side.
I use a flat-head screwdriver and a hammer to tack the glazier points in place behind the backer board to hold everything in place.
Note the location of the gray clips below on the backside of the fascia, prying up around these points easiest. I had the most luck working on the lower left and right corners as a starting point.
Step 2). Remove Wire Harnesses from Fascia
Once the fascia itself is loose the 3 cables that connect to it need to be removed. Start by depressing the clip which connects to the back of the hazard lights. Shown in the photo below.
Next remove the two wiring harnesses that connect to the clock (black wires) and passenger airbag sign (yellow wires) above the radio.
Step 3). Remove the Stock Radio
Unscrew the four screws which surround the unit.
Disconnect the wire harness and the antenna cable from the back of the radio.
Step 4). Prepare the Adapter Cable
At this point I took the Metra Wire Harness adapter cable and started soldering the wires to the new wiring harness provided by the new headunit. Which wires will need to actually be connected will vary based on the capabilities of your headunit.
When looking at the photo below you can see the adapter cable beneath the stock wiring harness that stretches over the black adapter which plugs into the back of the new headunit. I took the liberty of wrapping all my wires in the harness together with a little electrical tape but you don’t HAVE to do that, it’s just a nice touch.
Step 5). Install the New Headunit
Connect the wiring harness adapter from metra into the stock wire harness. Then screw in your mounting bracket from metra using the four screw which previously held the old radio in place.
I choose to mount my new head unit using the ISO mount technique which is a bit simpler than the classic DIN method (which employs the metallic cage surrounding the headunit which needs to have some pins bent down to hold it in place). Using the ISO technique requires the removal of the DIN cage from the new headunit and attaching the side rails included in the metra mounting bracket kit. At this point, connect the cables to the back of the new headunit and slide it into place.
I choose to run an additional microphone cable that was included with my headunit for handsfree calling but don’t have any pictures of that step.
At this point you can replace the fascia and then add the trim bracket which surrounds the headunit.
This post is an extension to Jacob Salema’s Guide that was picked up by Lifehacker. My main issue with his post is that he refers to the end result as a wireless router, which is not entirely accurate. This device is not meant to be internet-facing and is really more of a wireless/ethernet bridge with the configurations provided.
My goal here was to extend what was provided in his initial post and make it suitable for placing a Raspberry Pi directly behind a cable modem and fully exposed to the internet.
Raspberry Pi B (gen 2 model) any Raspberry Pi could potentially work here though
Short piece of Ethernet (to connect to cable modem)
Power Adapter and cord for Pi
SD card with Raspbian installed
(Optional) USB Keyboard and HDMI Monitor to access the PI. All of these steps can be performed over SSH with a little creativity however.
The Raspberry Pi’s performance is limited by the USB throughput of the WLAN adapter; which on the Raspberry Pi is a USB2.0 hub limited to a theoretical maximum of 480mbps, so you’ll never be able to pull gigabit ethernet here but this will get the job done for small sites. However if you have really crappy broadband like I do in this location the chokepoint will be the crappy broadband and not the Raspberry Pi.
I have maxed out my crappy broadband connection with the following speedtest.net performance results:
A BLAZING — 2.78mbps download
A SIMILARLY BLAZING — 1.28mbps upload
I repeated the same speedtest.net tests using a top-notch Lenovo X1 Gen3 laptop and got the exact same results so there is no lag using the raspberry pi here (for this crappy broadband connection). Since my broadband is so crappy here I’m using 802.11G wifi which won’t choke anything.
Note: I probably wouldn’t trust this for anything over 10mbps. I think the Raspberry Pi 2 with 802.11n wifi could handle a standard 40mbps connection based on some of the numbers I’m seeing here.
1). Required Installs:
Perform these first before any of the other steps.
Modify the configuration file for hostapd to have the following content.
Notice we’re using the “hw_mode=g” option here this is because my limited internet connection couldn’t support max throughput of a wifi-N connection so there would be minimal benefit. If you’re interested in N and have a Raspberry Pi2 and a faster internet connection it may make sense to enable that in your scenario.
Also feel free to modify the SSID to whatever you like and modify the password too, you’ll need at least 8 characters for the password. The channel can also be set to any value between 1-14 (1,6,11,14 are common in the USA)
Modify the defaults file for hostapd (/etc/default/hostapd) to have the same DAEMON_CONF line. The type of quotes used to surround the /etc/hostapd/hostapd.conf file are mission critical; if you use the wrong kind of quotes, hostapd will not start. You can debug the start of hostapd with the command “hostapd -d /etc/hostapd/hostapd.conf” which puts it into debugging mode.
# Defaults for hostapd initscript
# See /usr/share/doc/hostapd/README.Debian for information about alternative
# methods of managing hostapd.
# Uncomment and set DAEMON_CONF to the absolute path of a hostapd configuration
# file and hostapd will be started during system boot. An example configuration
# file can be found at /usr/share/doc/hostapd/examples/hostapd.conf.gz
# Additional daemon options to be appended to hostapd command:-
# -d show more debug messages (-dd for even more)
# -K include key data in debug messages
# -t include timestamps in some debug messages
# Note that -B (daemon mode) and -P (pidfile) options are automatically
# configured by the init.d script and must not be added to DAEMON_OPTS.
6). Reboot the Pi
Reboot the Pi to apply the interfaces config, start the hostapd daemon, start dnsmasq daemon. After the reboot you should see your new wireless SSID being broadcast and you should be able to login to it too with your provided password. At this point we need to proceed with the IP tables configuration to setup routing and PAT (port address translation).
7). Enable NAT and Routing Non-Persistently
Execute the following commands to enable NAT and routing for this particular session (we will make these settings persistent across reboots in steps 9 and 10).
sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.ip_forward=1
#Apply the NAT/PAT config
sudo iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE
Routing allows the Pi to move (or “route”) packets between the two interfaces (Wlan0 and Eth0). Making the Pi a Router allows packets which come in on the Wlan interfaces to be forwarded through the Pi and out the Eth0 port.
NAT stands for Network Address Translation. In this case we’re technically performing PAT or Port Address Translation because we are aggregating the connections and streams of multiple downstream/client IP addresses across a single public IP address using different source ports. As a result packets will be re-written as they pass through a NAT router to be sourced from the public IP address of the NAT router. This re-write hides the original source IP address of the client which generated the traffic. In order to keep track of which stream should be returned to which client, the NAT router keeps a table that maps the Egress destination port to an client IP and source port. This table is called a NAT translation table. You can view the content of the Translation table at any time with the following command:
8). IP Tables Configuration:
IPtables is a program which interacts with the networking stack in the Linux kernel and tells the kernel how to handle incoming network traffic. There are all kinds of customizations that can be made to an internet facing router. What I show below are pretty basic and generally recognized as safe defaults.
Apply the default config by pasting the following commands into the command line on your device:
#allow incoming traffic from the localhost
sudo iptables -A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT
#explicitly allow all icmp/ping traffic
sudo iptables -A INPUT -p icmp -m icmp --icmp-type any -j ACCEPT
#explicitly allow all traffic that is already established
sudo iptables -A INPUT -m state --state RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
#Allow new traffic only from the local/WLAN network
sudo iptables -A INPUT -i wlan0 -m state --state NEW -j ACCEPT
#Drop all other new traffic
sudo iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -m tcp ! --tcp-flags FIN,SYN,RST,ACK SYN -m state --state NEW -j DROP<
#Drop all fragments
sudo iptables -A INPUT -f -j DROP
# Drop XMAS packets
sudo iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --tcp-flags ALL ALL -j DROP
# Drop NULL packets
sudo iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --tcp-flags ALL NONE -j DROP
#allow our dns traffic
sudo iptables -A INPUT -i wlan0 -p udp -m udp --sport 53 -j ACCEPT
#log everything else that is about to get dropped.
sudo iptables -A INPUT -j LOG --log-prefix "IPTABLES Dropped: " --log-level 7
#drop everything else that has made it this far down and not matched.
sudo iptables -A INPUT -j DROP
You can see the presently applied iptables rules using the “iptables-save” command with sudo.
pi@raspberrypi:~ $ sudo iptables-save
# Generated by iptables-save v1.4.21 on Thu Dec 24 17:37:34 2015
:PREROUTING ACCEPT [7039:855804]
:INPUT ACCEPT [1138:80267]
:OUTPUT ACCEPT [1167:81793]
:POSTROUTING ACCEPT [21:3945]
-A POSTROUTING -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE
# Completed on Thu Dec 24 17:37:34 2015
# Generated by iptables-save v1.4.21 on Thu Dec 24 17:37:34 2015
:INPUT ACCEPT [0:0]
:FORWARD ACCEPT [444346:360889024]
:OUTPUT ACCEPT [4390:510099]
-A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -p icmp -m icmp --icmp-type any -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -m state --state RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -i wlan0 -m state --state NEW -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -p tcp -m tcp ! --tcp-flags FIN,SYN,RST,ACK SYN -m state --state NEW -j DROP
-A INPUT -f -j DROP
-A INPUT -p tcp -m tcp --tcp-flags FIN,SYN,RST,PSH,ACK,URG FIN,SYN,RST,PSH,ACK,URG -j DROP
-A INPUT -p tcp -m tcp --tcp-flags FIN,SYN,RST,PSH,ACK,URG NONE -j DROP
-A INPUT -i wlan0 -p udp -m udp --sport 53 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -j LOG --log-prefix "IPTABLES Dropped: " --log-level 7
-A INPUT -j DROP
# Completed on Thu Dec 24 17:37:34 2015
Once you’ve setup the rules you’d like, and you’ve tested that they behave as expected, proceed to step 8 to save the IP tables rules.
9). Make the IPtables Settings Persistent
During the installation of the iptables-persistent program it will ask you if you want to save the presently applied rules, select YES.
sudo apt-get install iptables-persistent -y
Once the rules are saved, they can be edited at the /etc/iptables/rules.v4 (for normal IPv4 traffic). If you’re testing your iptables changes by applying the rules directly using the iptables syntax in step 7 then as you make changes, they can be made persistent by writing the output of the “iptables-save” command directly to the rules.v4 file like so.
sudo iptables-save > /etc/iptables/rules.v4
10). Enable Routing Persistently
The following change allows the Raspi Router to move packets from one interface (wlan0) to another (eth0) by making the device a router.
sudo sed -i 's/#net.ipv4.ip_forward=1/net.ipv4.ip_forward=1/g' /etc/sysctl.conf